Panel Testing in CBD Explained
CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS
What do Testing Laboratories test for?
Cannabinoids – cannabinoid noun
can·na·bi·noid | \ kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯid
any of various naturally-occurring, biologically active, chemical constituents (such as cannabidiol or cannabinol) of hemp or cannabis including some (such as CBD, CBG, CBN and THC) that possess psychoactive properties
Foreign material – anything present that is environmentally off balance and not belonging to the properties that might prove to be contaminants and compromise the purity of the product
Heavy metals – “heavy metals” that are a risk in agriculture include arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. They get into outdoor plants mostly from pollution and runoff, but they can contaminate indoor plants when growers introduce fertilizers and pesticides that contain these dangerous metals, or the plant is naturally remediating contaminated soil (Chernobyl).
Microbial impurities- these are microorganisms, fungus or mold and especially a pathogenic bacterium, all of which pose a threat to the consumer
Mycotoxins – Mycotoxins are a secondary metabolite produced by fungi and some molds that readily colonize crops and can cause disease and death in animals, including humans. There are regulations by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concerning allowable amounts of mycotoxins in human feed and animal feed, the highest of which is 20 parts per billion for direct human exposure. To put this into perspective, for one kilogram of product, no more than 0.02 milligrams can be attributed from mycotoxins.
Two of the primary types of mycotoxins that are associated with cannabis are aflatoxins and ochratoxins. Aflatoxins are chemical mycotoxins produced by the Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus fungal species that suppress the immune system, mutate DNA, cause liver cancer (hepatocarcinoma) and can cross the placenta to exert harmful effects into the fetus.
Ochratoxins also have a similar carcinogenic and mutagenic profile as aflatoxins. Ochratoxin A is produced by Penicillum verucosum as well as Aspergillus ochraceus. These fungal products are deemed mutagenic and carcinogenic due to their ability to break DNA strands and inhibit their repair mechanisms. There is also significant data linking exposure to Ochratoxin A to a serious and fatal kidney disease called Balkan Endemic Nephropathy
Residual pesticides – No explanation here is needed.
Residual solvents and processing chemicals- Making cannabis oil produces a highly concentrated extract from dried herbal cannabis flowers. The cannabinoids are decarboxylated during drying and heating, which is basically a chemical reaction that releases carbon dioxide molecules from the plant material.This reaction takes place when carboxylic acids lose a carbon atom from a carbon chain. The cannabis oil is then extracted from the plant using solvents. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid or a gas. Solvents of concern include Methanol,. Ethanol, 2-Propanol,. Acetone, Methyl Acetate, 1-Propanol, sec-Butanol, 2-Butanone, Ethyl Acetate, iso-Butanol, Tetrahydrofuran,Acetic Acid (breakdown product), Methyl Cellusolve, Cyclohexane, iso-Propyl Acetate, n-Butanol, 1-Methoxy-2-Propanol, n-Propyl Acetate, 4-Methyl-2-Pentanone,. 2-Ethoxyethanol,iso-Butyl Acetate,Toluene, Butyl Acetate, Methyl Cellusolve Acetate, 2-Ethoxyethyl Acetate, Cyclohexanone
Terpenoids – Terpenes are the substances responsible for aroma. Multiple studies give terpenes credit for their anxiolytic and neuroprotector effects. Their capacity to interact is also understood to alter their effect. Recent studies show that the β-Caryophyllene terpene, as happens with some cannabinoids, has affinity for CB2 receptors, which is the reason why it is also classed as a cannabinoid. The analysis of terpenes allows us to choose those plants that better suit our needs, as well as, based on the proportion of terpenes present, being able to assign them to Indica or Sativa types in a more objective manner. Classification matters.
Homogeneity- Definition of homogeneity;1 : the quality or state of being of a similar kind or of having a uniform structure or composition throughout : the quality or state of being homogeneous OR 2; mathematics : the state of having identical cumulative distribution functions or values. Both apply in this case. Because oil is a moving constituent, stability is key to the viscosity and overall usability of the oil. If It is not stable, as example, there would be no way to quantify the percentages of molecules per classification accurately. A product is homogeneous if 10% of the infused portion contains less than 20% of the total CBD contained within the entire product.
Why is homogeneity important? Ensuring that CBD is distributed uniformly throughout a batch of any finished product provides users with the assurance of a consistently prepared brand/product. A user who may be accustomed to a tincture containing 500mg of CBD will know what effect to expect when he/she doses, and consistency is key.
*Testing Laboratories are required to document the chain of custody for the handling, storage, transportation, and destruction of samples.
For each primary sample, the Testing Laboratory must produce a certificate of analysis.
All products are required to meet the testing requirement standards before sale.